Lowick and Holy Island C. of E. First Schools

Child Protection and Safeguarding Policy

2015 - 2016



Journeying Together


Policy Review


This policy will be reviewed in full by the Governing Body annually.

The policy was agreed by the Governing Body on the 23rd September 2015.

It is due for review on the 1st September 2016.





Christine   Vanson


Chair of   Governors – Lowick C. of E. First School

John Moffat


Chair of   Governors – Holy Island C. of E. First School

Paul   Collins








Statutory Framework




The Designated Senior Person




The Governing Body




School Procedures




When to be Concerned




Dealing with a Disclosure








Communication with Parents




Record Keeping




Allegations Involving School   Staff/Volunteers

Appendix   1


Indicators of Harm

Appendix   2


Keeping Children Safe in   Education: information for all school   and college staff (DFE 2015)


Safeguarding is defined as protecting children from maltreatment, preventing impairment of health and/or development, ensuring that children grow up in the provision of safe and effective care and taking action to enable all children to have the best life chances.

This Child Protection Policy forms part of a suite of documents and policies which relate to the safeguarding responsibilities of the school.

In particular this policy should be read in conjunction with the Safer Recruitment Policy, Behaviour Policy, Physical Intervention Policy, Anti-Bullying Policy, Code of Conduct/Staff Behaviour Policy, Tackling Extremism and Radicalisation (Prevent) Policy and ICT Acceptable Usage Policy.

Purpose of a Child Protection Policy

To inform   staff, parents, volunteers and governors about the school's responsibilities   for safeguarding children.

To enable   everyone to have a clear understanding of how these responsibilities should   be carried out.

Northumberland Safeguarding Children   Board Inter-agency Child Protection and Safeguarding   Children Procedures


The school   follows the procedures established by the Northumberland Safeguarding   Children Board; a guide to procedure and practice for all agencies in Northumberland   working with children and their families.

School Staff & Volunteers



All school and college staff have a responsibility to provide a safe   environment in which children can learn.

School   staff and volunteers are particularly well placed to observe outward signs of   abuse, changes in behaviour and failure to develop because they have daily   contact with children.

All school   staff will receive appropriate safeguarding children training (which is   updated regularly – Northumberland Safeguarding Children Board advises every   3 years), so that they are knowledgeable and aware of their role in the early   recognition of the indicators of abuse or neglect and of the appropriate   procedures to follow. It is a requirement that the Designated Safeguarding   Lead receives training every two years.

Temporary   staff and volunteers will be made aware of the safeguarding policies and   procedures by the Designated Senior Person.

Mission Statement for Safeguarding   and Child Protection

Establish   and maintain an environment where children feel secure, are encouraged to   talk, and are listened to when they have a worry or concern.

Establish   and maintain an environment where school staff and volunteers feel safe, are   encouraged to talk and are listened to when they have concerns about the   safety and well being of a child.

Ensure   children know that there are adults in the school whom they can approach if   they are worried.

Ensure that   children who have been abused will be supported in line with a child   protection plan, where deemed necessary.

Include   opportunities in the curriculum for children to develop the skills they need   to recognise and stay safe from abuse.  

Contribute   to the five outcomes which are key to children’s wellbeing:

  • be healthy
  • stay safe
  • enjoy and achieve
  • make a positive contribution
  • achieve economic wellbeing

Children will   be taught about safeguarding, including online, through teaching and learning   opportunities, as part of providing a broad and balanced curriculum.

Staff members working with children are advised to maintain an   attitude of ‘it could happen here’ where safeguarding is concerned. When   concerned about the welfare of a child, staff members should always act in   the interests of the child.


Implementation, Monitoring and   Review of the Child Protection Policy


The policy   will be reviewed annually by the governing body. It will be implemented through the school’s   induction and training programme, and as part of day to day practice. Compliance with the policy will be   monitored by the Designated Safeguarding Lead and through staff performance   measures.




In order to safeguard and promote the welfare of children, the school will act in accordance with the following legislation and guidance:

  • The      Children Act 1989
  • The      Children Act 2004
  • Education      Act 2002 (section 175)
  • Northumberland      Safeguarding Children Board Inter-agency Child Protection and Safeguarding      Children Procedures      (Electronic)
  • Keeping      Children Safe in Education (DFE 2015)
  • Keeping      Children Safe in Education: information      for all school and college staff (DFE 2015) – APPENDIX 2
  • Working      Together to Safeguard Children (DfE 2015)
  • The      Education (Pupil Information) (England) Regulations 2005
  • Counter Terrorism and Security      Act 2015 (Section 26)

Working Together to Safeguard Children (DfE 2015) requires all schools to follow the procedures for protecting children from abuse which are established by the Northumberland Safeguarding Children Board.

Schools are also expected to ensure that they have appropriate procedures in place for responding to situations in which they believe that a child has been abused or are at risk of abuse - these procedures should also cover circumstances in which a member of staff is accused of, or suspected of, abuse.

The school will also follow guidance in relation the specific safeguarding issues outlined in Appendix 2. This will include the Prevent Duty Guidance 2015, in the exercise of their functions, to have due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism. Furthermore Section 5B of the Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003 (as inserted by section 74 of the Serious Crime Act 2015) will place a statutory duty upon teachers, along with social workers and healthcare professionals, to report to the police where they discover (either through disclosure by the victim or visual evidence) that FGM appears to have been carried out on a girl under 18.    


Keeping Children Safe in Education (DfE April 2015) places the following responsibilities on all schools:

  • Schools should be aware of and follow the procedures established by the Northumberland Safeguarding Children Board
  • Staff should be alert to signs of abuse and know to whom they should report any concerns or suspicions
  • Schools should have procedures (of which all staff are aware) for handling suspected cases of abuse of pupils, including procedures to be followed if a member of staff is accused of abuse, or suspected of abuse
  • A Designated Safeguarding Lead should have responsibility for co-ordinating action within the school and liaising with other agencies
  • Staff with the designated safeguarding lead should undergo updated child protection training every two years

Keeping Children Safe in Education (DfE April 2015) also states:

Governing bodies and proprietors should ensure there is an effective child protection policy in place together with a staff behaviour policy (code of conduct). Both should be provided to all staff – including temporary staff and volunteers – on induction. The child protection policy should describe procedures which are in accordance with government guidance and refer to locally agreed inter-agency procedures put in place by the NSCB, be updated annually, and be available publicly either via the school or college website or by other means.


Governing bodies and proprietors should ensure that the school designates an appropriate senior member of staff to take lead responsibility for child protection. This person should have the status and authority within the school to carry out the duties of the post including committing resources and, where appropriate, supporting and directing other staff.

The Designated Safeguarding Lead for Child Protection in this school is:

NAME:   Christine Vanson

(Also our E-Safety Co-ordinator).

In the absence/unavailability of the DSL the Assistant Head Mrs Kerry Fieldhouse will act as the Deputy Safeguarding Lead.

The broad areas of responsibility for the designated safeguarding lead are:

Managing referrals

Refer all cases of suspected abuse to the local authority children’s social care and:

  • Police      (cases where a crime may have been committed).
  • Act as      a source of support, advice and expertise to staff on matters of safety      and safeguarding and when deciding whether to make a referral by liaising      with relevant agencies


  • The      designated safeguarding lead should receive appropriate training carried      out every two years in order to:
  • Understand the assessment process for      providing early help and intervention, for example through locally agreed      common and shared assessment processes such as early help assessments
  • Have a working knowledge of how local      authorities conduct a child protection case conference and a child      protection review conference and be able to attend and contribute to these      effectively when required to do so
  • Ensure      each member of staff has access to and understands the school’s child      protection policy and procedures, especially new and part time staff
  • Be      alert to the specific needs of children in need, those with special      educational needs and young carers
  • Be able      to keep detailed, accurate, secure written records of concerns and      referrals
  • Obtain      access to resources and attend any relevant or refresher training courses
  • Encourage a culture of listening to children      and taking account of their wishes and feelings, among all staff, in any      measures the school or college may put in place to protect them

Raising Awareness

  • The      designated safeguarding lead should ensure the school policies are known and used      appropriately:
  • Ensure the school’s child protection policy is      reviewed annually and the procedures and implementation are updated and      reviewed regularly, and work with governing bodies regarding this
  • Ensure the child protection policy is      available publicly and parents are aware of the fact that referrals about      suspected abuse or neglect may be made and the role of the school or      college in this
  • Link with the local NSCB to make sure staff      are aware of training opportunities and the latest local policies on      safeguarding
  • Where      children leave the school ensure their child protection file is copied for      any new school or college as soon as possible but transferred separately      from the main pupil file


Governing bodies must ensure that they comply with their duties under legislation. They must also have regard to this guidance to ensure that the policies, procedures and training in their schools or colleges are effective and comply with the law at all times.

The nominated governor for child protection is:

NAME: John Moffat (Lowick)

             Paul Collins (Holy Island)

In particular the Governing Body must ensure:

  • The responsibilities placed on governing      bodies and proprietors include:
  • their contribution to inter-agency working,      which includes providing a coordinated offer of early help when additional      needs of children are identified
  • ensuring that an effective child protection      policy is in place, together with a staff behaviour policy
  • appointing a designated safeguarding lead who      should undergo child protection training every two years
  • prioritising the welfare of children and young      people and creating a culture where staff are confident to challenge      senior leaders over any safeguarding concerns
  • making      sure that children are taught about how to keep themselves safe.


If any member of staff is concerned about a child he or she must inform the Designated Safeguarding Lead.

The member of staff must record information regarding the concerns on the same day. The recording must be a clear, precise, factual account of the observations – see file in main school office.

The Designated Safeguarding Lead will decide whether the concerns should be referred to Children’s Services. If it is decided to make a referral to Children’s Services this will be discussed with the parents, unless to do so would place the child at further risk of harm.

Particular attention will be paid to the attendance and development of any child about whom the school has concerns, or who has been identified as being the subject of a child protection plan and a written record will be kept.

If a pupil who is/or has been the subject of a child protection plan changes school, the Designated Safeguarding Lead will inform the social worker responsible for the case and transfer the appropriate records to the Designated Safeguarding Lead at the receiving school, in a secure manner, and separate from the child’s academic file.

The Designated Safeguarding Lead is responsible for making the senior leadership team aware of trends in behaviour that may affect pupil welfare. If necessary, training will be arranged.

As a person who works with children, staff have a duty to refer safeguarding concerns to the designated safeguarding lead for child protection.

However if:

  • concerns are not taken seriously by an organisation or
  • action to safeguard the child is not taken by professionals and
  • the child is considered to be at continuing risk of harm

Then Staff should speak to a DSL in their school or contact Northumberland Children’s Services (including out of hours) on 01289 334000.

If, at any point, there is a risk of immediate serious harm to a child a referral should be made to children’s services immediately. Anybody can make a referral. If the child’s situation does not appear to be improving the staff member with concerns should press for re-consideration. Concerns should always lead to help for the child at some point.

If the allegations raised by the staff member are against other children the school should follow the Northumberland Safeguarding Children Board Procedures Manual - Children Who Abuse Others.

Mandatory Reporting Duty

Section 5B of the Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003 (as inserted by section 74 of the Serious Crime Act 2015) will place a statutory duty upon teachers, along with social workers and healthcare professionals, to report to the police where they discover (either through disclosure by the victim or visual evidence) that FGM appears to have been carried out on a girl under 18. Those failing to report such cases will face disciplinary sanctions.

From1 July 2015 specified authorities, including allschools as defined in thesummary ofthis guidance, are subjecttoa duty under section 26 ofthe Counter-Terrorism and SecurityAct 2015(the CTSA 2015”), inthe exercise oftheirfunctions,to have“due regardtothe needto prevent peoplefrombeing drawn intoterrorism. Thisduty is known asthe Prevent duty – Tackling Extremism and Radicalisation. Schools should haveclear procedures in placefor protectingchildren atrisk of radicalisation. The Prevent duty builds on existing localpartnership arrangements. For example, governingbodies of schoolsshould ensurethat theirsafeguarding arrangements take intoaccount thepolicies and procedures ofLocalSafeguarding ChildrenBoards(LSCBs).

In addition Schoolsmust ensurethatchildrenaresafe fromterrorist and extremist material when accessing the internet inschools.Schoolsshouldensurethat suitable filtering isin place.Itis also importantthat schoolsteach pupils about online safetymoregenerally.


All staff and volunteers should be aware that the main categories of abuse are:

  • Physical      abuse
  • Emotional      abuse
  • Sexual      abuse
  • Neglect

All staff and volunteers should be concerned about a child if he/she presents with indicators of possible significant harm – see Appendix 1 for details.

Generally, in an abusive relationship the child may:

  • Appear      frightened of the parent/s or other household members e.g. siblings or      others outside of the home
  • Act in      a way that is inappropriate to her/his age and development

(full account needs to be taken of different patterns of development and different ethnic groups)

  • Display      insufficient sense of ‘boundaries’, lack stranger awareness
  • Appear wary of adults and display      ‘frozen watchfulness’


If a child discloses that he or she has been abused in some way, the member of staff / volunteer should:

  • Listen      to what is being said without displaying shock or disbelief
  • Accept      what is being said
  • Allow      the child to talk freely
  • Reassure      the child, but not make promises which it might not be possible to keep
  • Not      promise confidentiality – it might be necessary to refer to Children’s      Services
  • Reassure      him or her that what has happened is not his or her fault
  • Stress      that it was the right thing to tell
  • Listen,      only asking questions when necessary to clarify
  • Not      criticise the alleged perpetrator
  • Explain      what has to be done next and who has to be told
  • Make      a written record (see Record Keeping)
  • Pass      the information to the Designated Safeguarding Lead without delay


Dealing with a disclosure from a child, and safeguarding issues can be stressful. The member of staff/volunteer should, therefore, consider seeking support for him/herself and discuss this with the Designated Safeguarding Lead.


Safeguarding children raises issues of confidentiality that must be clearly understood by all staff/volunteers in schools.

  • All      staff in schools, both teaching and non-teaching staff, have a      responsibility to share relevant information about the protection of children      with other professionals, particularly the investigative agencies (Children’s      Services and the Police).
  • If a child      confides in a member of staff/volunteer and requests that the information      is kept secret, it is important that the member of staff/volunteer tell      the child in a manner appropriate to the child’s age/stage of development      that they cannot promise complete confidentiality –      instead they must explain that they may need to pass information to other      professionals to help keep the child or other children safe.
  • Staff/volunteers      who receive information about children and their families in the course of      their work should share that information only within appropriate      professional contexts.


Lowick and Holy Island C. of E. First Schools will:

Ensure the child protection policy is available publicly either via the school website or by other means.

Parents should be informed prior to referral, unless it is considered to do so might place the child at increased risk of significant harm by:

  • The      behavioural response it prompts e.g. a child being subjected to abuse,      maltreatment or threats / forced to remain silent if alleged abuser      informed;
  • Leading      to an unreasonable delay;
  • Leading      to the risk of loss of evidential material;
  • Placing      a member of staff from any agency at risk. 

Ensure that parents have an understanding of the responsibilities placed on the school and staff for safeguarding children.


When a child has made a disclosure, the member of staff/volunteer should:

  • Record      as soon as possible after the conversation. Use the school record of      concern sheet wherever possible.
  • Don’t      destroy the original notes in case they are needed by a court
  • Record      the date, time, place and any noticeable non-verbal behaviour and the      words used by the child
  • Indicate      the position of any injuries on the diagram – in file in office
  • Record      statements and observations rather than interpretations or assumptions

All records need to be given to the Designated Safeguarding Lead promptly. No copies should be retained by the member of staff or volunteer.

The Designated Safeguarding Lead will ensure that all safeguarding records are managed in accordance with the Education (Pupil Information) (England) Regulations 2005.


An allegation is any information which indicates that a member of staff/volunteer may have:

  • Behaved      in a way that has, or may have harmed a child
  • Possibly      committed a criminal offence against/related to a child
  • Behaved      towards a child or children in a way which indicates s/he would pose a      risk of harm if they work regularly or closely with children

This applies to any child the member of staff/volunteer has contact within their personal, professional or community life.

To reduce the risk of allegations, all staff should be aware of safer working practice and should be familiar with the guidance contained in the school code of conduct or Government document ‘Guidance for Safer Working Practice for Adults who work with Children and Young People in Education Settings’.

The person to whom an allegation is first reported should take the matter seriously and keep an open mind. S/he should not investigate or ask leading questions if seeking clarification; it is important not to make assumptions. Confidentiality should not be promised and the person should be advised that the concern will be shared on a 'need to know' basis only.

Actions to be taken include making an immediate written record of the allegation using the informant's words - including time, date and place where the alleged incident took place, brief details of what happened, what was said and who was present. This record should be signed, dated and immediately passed on to the Head Teacher.

If the concerns are about the Head Teacher, then the Chair of Governors should be contacted. The Chair of Governors in this school is:

NAME:   John Moffat (Lowick)                      

NAME: Paul Collins (Holy Island)                                      

The recipient of an allegation must not unilaterally determine its validity, and failure to report it in accordance with procedures is a potential disciplinary matter.

The Head Teacher will not investigate the allegation itself, or take written or detailed statements, but will assess whether it is necessary to refer the concern to the Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO):

LADO (Chris O’Reilly – 01670 623979)

If the allegation meets any of the three criteria set out at the start of this section, contact should always be made with the Local Authority Designated Officer without delay.

If it is decided that the allegation meets the threshold for safeguarding, this will take place in accordance with the Northumberland Safeguarding Children Board Inter-agency Child Protection and Safeguarding Children Procedures.

If it is decided that the allegation does not meet the threshold for safeguarding, it will be handed back to the employer for consideration via the school’s internal procedures.

The Head Teacher should, as soon as possible, following briefing from the Local Authority Designated Officer inform the subject of the allegation.

For further information see:

NSCB Inter-agency Child Protection and Safeguarding Children Procedures (Electronic)

Section 4.1 Managing Allegations Against Adults who work with Children and Young People


Advice   Area

School   Contact(s)

Discussion   about a CP or child welfare referral

Through   school to children’s social care teams:

Alnwick   – 01665 626830

Ashington   – 01670 629200

Berwick   – 01289 334000

Disabled   Children’s Team – 01670 516131

Leaving   Care Team – 01670 714925

Advice   on the operation of CP/Safeguarding Procedures (how to refer & where)

Steve   Day – Safeguarding Standards manager & Principal Social Worker – 01670   624037

Lead   roles in relation to responding to allegations against staff (including those   not employed by the school)

Chris   O’Reilly (as LADO for all allegations against professionals who work with   children) – 01670 623979

Suzanne   Hendey – 01670 623611 or

Ian   Harbottle – 01670 623605 re school staff

Hugh   Cadwallader – 01670 623126 for centrally employed education staff

CP   Allegations relating to school transport

Chris   O‘Reilly LADO – 01670 623126

Model   CP Policy for schools

Jane   walker 01670 622734

Policy   on use of restraint in schools

Chris   Farley – 01670 624184

Recruitment   & Selection/Vetting & Barring

Suzanne   Hendey/Ian Harbottle/Hugh Cadwallader

Co-ordination   of Training Requirements for Designated staff (CP)

Anne   Lambert – 01670 623159

MAPPA   – Risk Management re individuals who may pose a risk to children

Patrick   Boyle/MAPPA – 01670 624035

Monitoring/Quality   Assurance re operation of schools safeguarding arrangements

Derek   Sleightholme (SIP)

Kate   Pringle – Berwick Area Co-ordinator

Children   Missing from Education

Chris   Farley – 01670 624184




Physical abuse may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating, or otherwise causing physical harm to a child. Physical harm may also be caused when a parent or carer fabricates the symptoms of, or deliberately induces, illness in a child.

Indicators in the child


It is often possible to differentiate between accidental and inflicted bruises. The following must be considered as non accidental unless there is evidence or an adequate explanation provided:

  • Bruising in or around the mouth
  • Two simultaneous bruised eyes, without bruising to the forehead, (rarely accidental, though a single bruised eye can be accidental or abusive)
  • Repeated or multiple bruising on the head or on sites unlikely to be injured accidentally, for example the back, mouth, cheek, ear, stomach, chest, under the arm, neck, genital and rectal areas
  • Variation in colour possibly indicating injuries caused at different times
  • The outline of an object used e.g. belt marks, hand prints or a hair brush
  • Linear bruising at any site, particularly on the buttocks, back or face
  • Bruising or tears around, or behind, the earlobe/s indicating injury by pulling or twisting
  • Bruising around the face
  • Grasp marks to the upper arms, forearms or leg
  • Petechae haemorrhages (pinpoint blood spots under the skin.)  Commonly associated with slapping, smothering/suffocation, strangling and squeezing


Fractures may cause pain, swelling and discolouration over a bone or joint.  It is unlikely that a child will have had a fracture without the carers being aware of the child's distress.

If the child is not using a limb, has pain on movement and/or swelling of the limb, there may be a fracture.

There are grounds for concern if:

  • The history provided is vague, non-existent or inconsistent
  • There are associated old fractures
  • Medical attention is sought after a period of delay when the fracture has caused symptoms such as swelling, pain or loss of movement

Rib fractures are only caused in major trauma such as in a road traffic accident, a severe shaking injury or a direct injury such as a kick.

Skull fractures are uncommon in ordinary falls, i.e. from three feet or less.  The injury is usually witnessed, the child will cry and if there is a fracture, there is likely to be swelling on the skull developing over 2 to 3 hours.  All fractures of the skull should be taken seriously.

Mouth Injuries   

Tears to the frenulum (tissue attaching upper lip to gum) often indicates force feeding of a baby or a child with a disability.  There is often finger bruising to the cheeks and around the mouth.  Rarely, there may also be grazing on the palate. 


Ingestion of tablets or domestic poisoning in children under 5 is usually due to the carelessness of a parent or carer, but it may be self harm even in young children.

Fabricated or Induced Illness

Professionals may be concerned at the possibility of a child suffering significant harm as a result of having illness fabricated or induced by their carer. Possible concerns are:

  • Discrepancies between reported and observed      medical conditions, such as the incidence of fits
  • Attendance at various hospitals, in different      geographical areas
  • Development of feeding / eating disorders, as a result of unpleasant feeding interactions
  • The child developing abnormal attitudes to their own health
  • Speech, language or motor developmental delays
  • Dislike of close physical contact
  • Attachment disorders
  • Low self esteem
  • Poor quality or no relationships with peers because social interactions are restricted
  • Poor attendance at school and under-achievement
  • Non organic failure to thrive - a child does not      put on weight and grow and there is no underlying medical cause

Bite Marks

Bite marks can leave clear impressions of the teeth when seen shortly after the injury has been inflicted.  The shape then becomes a more defused ring bruise or oval or crescent shaped. Those over 3cm in diameter are more likely to have been caused by an adult or older child.

A medical/dental opinion, preferably within the first 24 hours, should be sought where there is any doubt over the origin of the bite.

Burns and Scalds

It can be difficult to distinguish between accidental and non-accidental burns and scalds. Scalds are the most common intentional burn injury recorded.

Any burn with a clear outline may be suspicious e.g. circular burns from cigarettes, linear burns from hot metal rods or electrical fire elements, burns of uniform depth over a large area, scalds that have a line indicating immersion or poured liquid.

Old scars indicating previous burns/scalds which did not have appropriate treatment or adequate explanation. Scalds to the buttocks of a child, particularly in the absence of burns to the feet, are indicative of dipping into a hot liquid or bath.

The following points are also worth remembering:

  • A responsible adult checks the temperature of the      bath before the child gets in.
  • A child is unlikely to sit down voluntarily in a      hot bath and cannot accidentally scald its bottom without also scalding      his or her feet.
  • A child getting into too hot water of his or her      own accord will struggle to get but and there will be splash marks


A large number of scars or scars of different sizes or ages, or on different parts of the body, or unusually shaped, may suggest abuse.

Emotional/behavioural presentation

Refusal to discuss injuries

Admission of punishment which appears excessive

Fear of parents being contacted and fear of returning home

Withdrawal from physical contact

Arms and legs kept covered in hot weather

Fear of medical help

Aggression towards others

Frequently absent from school

An explanation which is inconsistent with an injury

Several different explanations provided for an injury

Indicators in the parent  

May have injuries themselves that suggest domestic violence

Not seeking medical help/unexplained delay in seeking treatment

Reluctant to give information or mention previous injuries

Absent without good reason when their child is presented for treatment

Disinterested or undisturbed by accident or injury

Aggressive towards child or others

Unauthorised attempts to administer medication

Tries to draw the child into their own illness.

Past history of childhood abuse, self harm, somatising disorder or false allegations of physical or sexual assault

Parent/carer may be over involved in participating in medical tests, taking temperatures and measuring bodily fluids

Observed to be intensely involved with their children, never taking a much needed break nor allowing anyone else to undertake their child's care.

May appear unusually concerned about the results of investigations which may indicate physical illness in the child

Wider parenting difficulties may (or may not) be associated with this form of abuse.

Parent/carer has convictions for violent crimes.

Indicators in the family/environment

Marginalised or isolated by the community

History of mental heath, alcohol or drug misuse or domestic violence

History of unexplained death, illness or multiple surgery in parents and/or siblings of

the family

Past history of childhood abuse, self harm, somatising disorder or false allegations of physical or sexual assault or a culture of physical chastisement.


Emotional abuse is the persistent emotional maltreatment of a child such as to cause severe and persistent adverse effects on the child’s emotional development. It may involve conveying to children that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate, or valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person.

It may include not giving the child opportunities to express their views, deliberately silencing them or ‘making fun’ of what they say or how they communicate.

It may feature age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being imposed on children. These may include interactions that are beyond the child’s developmental capability, as well as overprotection and limitation of exploration and learning, or preventing the child participating in normal social interaction.

It may involve seeing or hearing the ill-treatment of another. It may involve serious bullying (including cyberbullying), causing children frequently to feel frightened or in danger, or the exploitation or corruption of children.

Some level of emotional abuse is involved in all types of maltreatment

Indicators in the child

Developmental delay

Abnormal attachment between a child and parent/carer e.g. anxious, indiscriminate or no attachment

Aggressive behaviour towards others

Child scapegoated within the family

Frozen watchfulness, particularly in pre-school children

Low self esteem and lack of confidence

Withdrawn or seen as a 'loner' - difficulty relating to others

Over-reaction to mistakes

Fear of new situations

Inappropriate emotional responses to painful situations

Neurotic behaviour (e.g. rocking, hair twisting, thumb sucking)

Self harm

Fear of parents being contacted

Extremes of passivity or aggression

Drug/solvent abuse

Chronic running away

Compulsive stealing

Low self-esteem

Air of detachment – ‘don’t care’ attitude

Social isolation – does not join in and has few friends

Depression, withdrawal

Behavioural problems e.g. aggression, attention seeking, hyperactivity, poor attention

Low self esteem, lack of confidence, fearful, distressed, anxious

Poor peer relationships including withdrawn or isolated behaviour

Indicators in the parent

Domestic abuse, adult mental health problems and parental substance misuse may be features in families where children are exposed to abuse.

Abnormal attachment to child e.g. overly anxious or disinterest in the child

Scapegoats one child in the family

Imposes inappropriate expectations on the child e.g. prevents the child’s developmental exploration or learning, or normal social interaction through overprotection.

Wider parenting difficulties may (or may not) be associated with this form of abuse.

Indicators of in the family/environment

Lack of support from family or social network.

Marginalised or isolated by the community.

History of mental heath, alcohol or drug misuse or domestic violence.

History of unexplained death, illness or multiple surgery in parents and/or siblings of the family

Past history of childhood abuse, self harm, somatising disorder or false allegations of physical or sexual assault or a culture of physical chastisement.


Neglect is the persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the child’s

health or development. Neglect may occur during pregnancy as a result of maternal substance abuse.

Once a child is born, neglect may involve a parent or carer failing to:

  • provide adequate food, clothing and shelter (including exclusion from home or abandonment);
  • protect a child from physical and emotional harm or danger;
  • ensure adequate supervision (including the use of inadequate care-givers); or
  • ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment.

It may also include neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a child’s basic emotional needs.

Indicators in the child

Physical presentation

Failure to thrive or, in older children, short stature


Frequent hunger

Dirty, unkempt condition

Inadequately clothed, clothing in a poor state of repair

Red/purple mottled skin, particularly on the hands and feet, seen in the winter due to cold

Swollen limbs with sores that are slow to heal, usually associated with cold injury

Abnormal voracious appetite

Dry, sparse hair

Recurrent / untreated infections or skin conditions e.g. severe nappy rash, eczema or persistent head lice / scabies/ diarrhoea

Unmanaged / untreated health / medical conditions including poor dental health

Frequent accidents or injuries


General delay, especially speech and language delay

Inadequate social skills and poor socialization

Emotional/behavioural presentation

Attachment disorders

Absence of normal social responsiveness

Indiscriminate behaviour in relationships with adults

Emotionally needy

Compulsive stealing

Constant tiredness

Frequently absent or late at school

Poor self esteem

Destructive tendencies

Thrives away from home environment

Aggressive and impulsive behaviour

Disturbed peer relationships

Self harming behaviour

Indicators in the parent

Dirty, unkempt presentation

Inadequately clothed

Inadequate social skills and poor socialisation

Abnormal attachment to the child .e.g. anxious

Low self esteem and lack of confidence

Failure to meet the basic essential needs e.g. adequate food, clothes, warmth, hygiene

Failure to meet the child’s health and medical needs e.g. poor dental health; failure to attend or keep appointments with health visitor, GP or hospital; lack of GP registration; failure to seek or comply with appropriate medical treatment; failure to address parental substance misuse during pregnancy

Child left with adults who are intoxicated or violent

Child abandoned or left alone for excessive periods

Wider parenting difficulties, may (or may not) be associated with this form of abuse

Indicators in the family/environment

History of neglect in the family

Family marginalised or isolated by the community.

Family has history of mental heath, alcohol or drug misuse or domestic violence.

History of unexplained death, illness or multiple surgery in parents and/or siblings of the family

Family has a past history of childhood abuse, self harm, somatising disorder or false allegations of physical or sexual assault or a culture of physical chastisement.

Dangerous or hazardous home environment including failure to use home safety equipment; risk from animals

Poor state of home environment e.g. unhygienic facilities, lack of appropriate sleeping arrangements, inadequate ventilation (including passive smoking) and lack of adequate heating

Lack of opportunities for child to play and learn


Sexual abuse involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, not necessarily involving a high level of violence, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening.

The activities may involve physical contact, including assault by penetration (for example, rape or oral sex) or non-penetrative acts such as masturbation, kissing, rubbing and touching outside of clothing.

They may also include non-contact activities, such as involving children in looking at, or in the production of, sexual images, watching sexual activities, encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways, or grooming a child in preparation for abuse (including via the internet).

Sexual abuse is not solely perpetrated by adult males. Women can also commit acts of sexual abuse, as can other children.

Child Sexual Exploitation

Child sexual exploitation (CSE) involves exploitative situations, contexts and relationships where young people receive something (for example food, accommodation, drugs, alcohol, gifts, money or in some cases simply affection) as a result of engaging in sexual activities. Sexual exploitation can take many forms ranging from the seemingly ‘consensual’ relationship where sex is exchanged for affection or gifts, to serious organised crime by gangs and groups. What marks out exploitation is an imbalance of power in the relationship. The perpetrator always holds some kind of power over the victim which increases as the exploitative relationship develops. Sexual exploitation involves varying degrees of coercion, intimidation or enticement, including unwanted pressure from peers to have sex, sexual bullying including cyberbullying and grooming. However, it also important to recognise that some young people who are being sexually exploited do not exhibit any external signs of this abuse. (Keeping Children Safe in Education – DfE, 2015)

Indicators in the child

Physical presentation

Urinary infections, bleeding or soreness in the genital or anal areas

Recurrent pain on passing urine or faeces

Blood on underclothes

Sexually transmitted infections

Vaginal soreness or bleeding

Pregnancy in a younger girl where the identity of the father is not disclosed and/or there is secrecy or vagueness about the identity of the father

Physical symptoms such as injuries to the genital or anal area, bruising to buttocks, abdomen and thighs, sexually transmitted disease, presence of semen on vagina, anus, external genitalia or clothing

Emotional/behavioural presentation

Makes a disclosure.

Demonstrates sexual knowledge or behaviour inappropriate to age/stage of development, or that is unusually explicit

Inexplicable changes in behaviour, such as becoming aggressive or withdrawn

Self-harm - eating disorders, self mutilation and suicide attempts

Poor self-image, self-harm, self-hatred

Reluctant to undress for PE

Running away from home

Poor attention / concentration (world of their own)

Sudden changes in school work habits, become truant

Withdrawal, isolation or excessive worrying

Inappropriate sexualised conduct

Sexually exploited or indiscriminate choice of sexual partners

Wetting or other regressive behaviours e.g. thumb sucking

Draws sexually explicit pictures


Indicators in the parents

Comments made by the parent/carer about the child.

Lack of sexual boundaries

Wider parenting difficulties or vulnerabilities

Grooming behaviour

Parent is a sex offender

Indicators in the family/environment

Marginalised or isolated by the community.

History of mental heath, alcohol or drug misuse or domestic violence.

History of unexplained death, illness or multiple surgery in parents and/or siblings of the family

Past history of childhood abuse, self harm, somatising disorder or false allegations of physical or sexual assault or a culture of physical chastisement.

Family member is a sex offender

PREVENT – Tackling Extremism and Radicalisation

From1 July 2015 specified authorities, including allschools as defined in thesummary ofthis guidance, are subjecttoa duty under section 26 ofthe Counter-Terrorism and SecurityAct 2015(the CTSA 2015”), inthe exercise oftheirfunctions,to have“due regardtothe needto prevent peoplefrombeing drawn intoterrorism. Thisduty is known asthe Prevent duty.

Thestatutory Preventguidancesummarisestherequirements onschools interms offour generalthemes: riskassessment,working in partnership, stafftraining and IT policies.

  • Schools are expected to assesstheriskf children being drawninto terrrism,includingsupport frextremistideasthat arepartfterrorist ideology.This means being able to demtrate both a general understandingfthe risks affectingchildren andyg people in the area andaspecific understanding wto identify individualchildren whomay be at riskfradicalisatin and whatto do tosupportthem.Schools should haveclear prres in placefr protectingchildren atriskf radicalisation. These pruresmay be sett in existingsafeguardingpcies.It is not necessaryfrschoolsto have distinct policiesn implementing the Prevent duty.
  • The Prevent duty buildsn existing localpartnership arrangements. For example, governingbs and prrietrsf allschoolsshould ensurethat theirsafeguarding arrangements take intoacct thepolicies and prres ofLocalSafeguarding ChildrenBrds(LSCBs).
  • ThePrevent guidancereferstothe importancefPrevent awarenesstrainingto equipstaffto identifychildren atriskfbeing drawn intoterrrism and to

challengeextremistideas. Individualschools are best placed to assess the training needs ofstaffinthe light oftheir assessment oftherisktopupils atthe schoolof being drawnintoterrorism. Asa minimum, however, schoolsshould ensurethatthe designated safeguarding lead undertakes Prevent awareness training and is able to provide advice andsupport to other members ofstaff on protectingchildrenfromtheriskofradicalisation.

  • Schoolsmust ensurethatchildrenaresafe frmterrrist and extremist material when accessing the internet inschools.Schsshouldensurethat suitable filtering isin place.Itis also importantthat schoolsteach pupils abt safetymegenerally.









Summary                                                                                                                                           4

Aboutthis guidance                                                                                                                     4

Whothis guidance isfor                                                                                                              4

Whatit replaces                                                                                                                           5

Partone:Safeguardinginformationforallstaff                                                                            6

Whatschoolandcollege staffshouldknow and do                                                                  6

Typesof abuse andneglect                                                                                                      11

Specificsafeguardingissues                                                                                                   12

Furtherinformation onaChildMissingfromEducation                                                        13

FurtherinformationonChildSexualExploitation                                                                   14

FurtherinformationonFemaleGenitalMutilation                                                                  14

FurtherinformationonPreventing Radicalisation                                                                  15

Parttwo: Themanagementofsafeguarding                                                                              18

Theresponsibility of governingbodies and proprietors                                                        18

Partthree:Saferrecruitment                                                                                                        23

Recruitment,selection and pre-employmentvetting                                                              23

Typesofcheck                                                                                                                           26

Pre-appointmentchecks                                                                                                           27

Partfour: Allegationsof abusemade againstteachers andotherstaff                                   40

Duties as an employer and an employee                                                                                40

Initialconsiderations                                                                                                                  40

Supportingthose involved                                                                                                         42

Managingthe situation and exitarrangements                                                                       44

Specificactions                                                                                                                         49

AnnexA:Legislation                                                                                                                     51

AnnexB: Role ofthedesignatedsafeguarding lead                                                                 52

AnnexC:Specialcircumstances                                                                                                 54

Boardingschools and childrens homes                                                                                 54

Childrenstayingwith host families                                                                                           54

AnnexD: Statutoryguidance–regulated activity(children)-Supervision ofactivity with childrenwhich is regulated activity when unsupervised.                                                                                         56

AnnexE: Disclosureand Barring Servicechecks                                                                     59


About this guidance

This isstatutory guidancefromthe Departmentfor Education issued under Section 175 oftheEducationAct 2002,theEducation(IndependentSchoolStandards)Regulations 2014andtheEducation(Non-MaintainedSpecialSchools)(England)Regulations2011.Schoolsand collegesmusthaveregard to it whencarrying outtheir dutiesto safeguard andpromotethe welfare ofchildren.

Unless otherwisespecified, school’meansallschools whethermaintained, non- maintained or independent schools, includingacademies and freeschools,alternative provisionacademiesand pupilreferral units.‘School’includes maintained nursery schools.1College’meansfurthereducation colleges andsixth-formcolleges as established undertheFurther and HigherEducationAct 1992, andrelatestotheir responsibilitiestowards childrenunder the age of 18, but excludes 16-19 academies and freeschools(which arerequired tocomply withrelevant safeguarding legislation by virtue oftheirfunding agreement).

Thisdocumentcontains information on what schools andcolleges shoulddoandsets outthe legal duties with which schools and collegesmust comply.Itshould be read alongsidestatutory guidance WorkingTogether toSafeguardChildren2015which appliesto allthe schoolsreferredto above, and departmental adviceWhat todo if you areworried achild is being abused 2015- Adviceforpractitioners.

Legislationthis guidancereferstois listedatAnnexA.

Whothis guidance isfor

  • Grningbodiesfmaintained (includingmaintained nurseryschools), non- maintainedspecialschools, andceges, prrietrsfindependentschools (includingacademies,free schoolsand alternative prsion academies) and managementcmmitteesf pupilreferralunits(PRUs),furthereducationcleges andsixthfrm cs.
  • Theabove perssshouldensurethatall staffinschoolsandcollegesreadat leastpartefthisguidance.

1  The EarlyYearsFoundation Stage Framework(EYFS) ismandatoryfor allearlyyears providers.It appliestoall schoolsthat provideearly years provisionincludingmaintained nurseryschools. Maintained nurseryschools, likethe otherschools listed,must haveregardtoKeeping Children SafeinEducation 2015(byvirtueof section175(2) ofthe EducationAct 2002–seefootnote8forfurther detailonthisrequirement).

What itreplaces

This guidancereplaces Keeping ChildrenSafe in Education 2014,whichreplaced:

  • SafeguardingChildren and SaferRecruitment inEducation(December2006);and,
  • Dealingwith allegationsf abusemade against teachers andtherstaff


What school staffshould know and do

  1. Safeguardingand prmtingthewelfarefchildren isdefinedfr thepurposesthis guidance as: prtingchildrenfrmmaltreatment; preventing impairment childrenshealth r development; ensuring that children grwup in circumstances cstent withthe prsionfsafe and effectivecare; andtaking actiontoenableall childrento have the besttc.
  1. Children includes everye underthe agef
  1. Whereachild issuffering significant harm,ris likelytodos, action shouldbe takento protect that child.2Action should also betakento prmtethe welfarefachild in needf additionalsupport,even if they are not suffering harmrare at immediate risk.3


  1. Everye who cmes into ctact with children and theirfamilies hasa reto play insafeguardingchildren. Schoolstaff are particularly important as they are in a position to identifycrns early and pre help fr children, to prevent crns frmescalating. Schodtheirstafffrm part fthewidersafeguarding systemfrchildren. Thissystemisdescribed instatutry guidance WrkingTogether to SafeguardChildren2015. Schoolsshould work withslcare,the police,healthservices andtherservicesto prmtethe welfarefchildren and prtect them frmharm.
  1. Eachscholshouldhave a designated safeguarding lead who will presupport tostaffmemberstocarryut their safeguardingduties andwho willliaise closelywiththerservices such as children’sslcare.


  1. The Teachers’Standards 2012statethatteachers, including headteachers, should safeguardchildrens wellbeingand maintain publictrust in theteaching prfession aspartftheirprsionalduties. 4

2  Suchactionmight betakenunder section47 andsection44 of the ChildrenAct 1989.

3  Suchactionmight betakenunder section17 of theChildrenAct 1989.

4  The Teachers'Standardsapplyto:trainees workingtowards QTS;allteacherscompletingtheirstatutoryinduction period(newlyqualifiedteachers[NQTs]); andteachersinmaintainedschools, includingmaintainedspecialschools,whoaresubjecttotheEducation(SchoolTeachers’Appraisal)(England)Regulations 2012.

  1. Allschoolstaffhave aresponsibilityto prvideasafe envirment in whichchildrencan lear
  1. Allschoolstaff havea responsibilityto identify children who may be in needf extra helpr who aresuffering,rare likelytosuffer,significant harm.Allstaffthen havea responsibilityto take apprriate action, working withtherservices as needed.
  1. In additionto working withthe designatedsafeguarding lead staffmembersshould be aware that they may be asked tosupportsl workerstotake decisionsabout individualchildren.


  1. Allstaff membersshould be awaref systems withintheir school which support safeguarding andtheseshould be explainedto them aspart fstaffinducts includes:theschs child prtection policy;theschools staffbehavir policy(smetimescalledacefct); andtheref the designatedsafeguarding
  1. Allstaff membersshould alsoreceive appropriatechild prtection trainingwhich is regularlyupdated.


  1. Allschool staffmembers should be aware of the signsf abuse and neglect so thatthey are ableto identifycases f children who may be in need f helprtect
  1. Staffmembers working withchildren are advisedtomaintain an attitudef ‘it cd happen herewheresafeguardingiscrned.When crned abtthe welfarefa child,staffmembersshouldalways act intheinterestsfthec
  1. There arevarious expert srcesf advice nthe signsf abuse and neglect.Each area’s LocalSafeguarding ChildrenBrd(LSCB)shouldbe ableto advisefulmaterial, includingtraining tions.5One goodsourcef advice is pridedn the NSPCCwebsite. Typesf abuseand neglect, and examplesfspecificsafeguarding issues, are describedin paragraphs 24-29 fthis guidance.
  1. Knowingwhatto lookfr isvitalto the earlyidentification f abuse and neglect.Ifstaffmembers are unsure theyshd alwaysspeak to the designated safeguarding lead.In exceptionalcircumstances,such as in emergency ra genuine crn that apprriate action has not been taken, staffmemberscan speak directlytochildren’s slcar

5  DepartmentforEducation trainingmaterialsonneglect.


  1. If staffmembers havecrns abouta childtheyshould raisethese withthe designated safeguarding lead.The safeguarding leadwillusually decidewhethertomakea referralto children’sslcare, but itis importantto note that anystaffmembercanrefertheircrnstochildrensslcaredirectly.Whereachild andfamily would benefitfrmcrdinated support frmmre thane agency(fxampleeducation, health, housing, police) thereshould be an inter-agency assessment.These assessments should identify what help the child and familyrequire to prevent needs escalatingtoa point where intervention would be neededviaastatutry assessment under theChildrenAct1989. The early help assessment should be undertaken by a lead prfessionalwho culd be ateacher,special educational needs crdinatr,GeneralPractitioner(GP),familysupport worker, and/orhealthvisitr.
  1. If,atanypint,thereisariskfimmediate serisharmtoachildareferralshouldbemadetochildren’ssialcareimmediately.Anybodycanmakea referral.Ifthechild’ssituatindoesnotappeartobeimpringthestaffmember withconcernsshouldpressfrre-considerati.Concernsshouldalwaysleadtohelpfrthechildatsomepoint.
  1. Staffshouldbeawarefnewreportingrequirementswithregardstoknwncasesffemalegenitalmutilatin(FGM).Furtherdetailscanbefdnpage14.
  1. It is importantfr childrento receivethe right help at the righttime to address risks and preventissues escalating. Research and Serious Case Reviews haverepeatedly shownthe dangersffailingtotake effective action. Poor practiceincludes: failingto actn andrefer the earlysignsf abuse and neglect, poorrecordkeeping,failingto listen to theviewsfthe child, failingtore-assess crns when situations do not improve,sharing infrmation toslowly anda lackfchallengeto those who appear not to be


  1. The Departmentfr Educationhas pred advice What todo ifyare worried achild isbeingabused 2015- Advicefpractitionersto help practitioners identifychild abuse and neglect and take apprriate action in respo

Whatschoolstaffshoulddoiftheyhaveconcernsaboutanotherstaff member

  1. If staffmembers havecrns about anotherstaffmember thenthisshould be referredtothe headteacher. Where therearecrns aboutthe headteacherthisshould be referredtothe chairf governors. Full detailscan befd in Part 4 f this guidanc


  1. Staff andvteersshould feel ableto raisecrns about poorr unsafe practiceand potentialfailures intheschools safeguardingregime.Apprriate whistleblowingprdures, which aresuitablyreflected instafftraining andstaffbehavir policies,should be in place fr such crns to be raised with theschoolcege’smanagementteam.
  1. Whereastaff memberfeels unableto raise the issue withtheir employer rfeels thattheirgenuine cncerns arent being addressed,r whistleblowingchannels may bentothem.7

8 Adviceonwhistleblowing


This diagram illustrates what actionshouldbe taken and whoshould take itwhere there areconcerns abouta child.If, at any point, there is arisk of immediateserious harm toa childareferralshould bemadetochildren’s socialcare immediately. Anybodycan makeareferral.

*Incaseswhich alsoinvolve anallegation of abuseagainstthestaff member,see partfour ofthis guidance which explains action theschool or collegeshouldtakeinrespect of thestaff member.

**Whereachild andfamily would benefitfromcoordinated support frommorethanoneagency(e.g. education, health,housing,police)thereshould beaninter-agencyassessment.Theseassessmentsshould identify whathelpthechild andfamilyrequireto prevent needs escalatingtoa pointwhereinterventionwould beneededviaastatutory assessment under theChildrenAct 1989.The earlyhelpassessment shouldbeundertakenbya leadprofessionalwho couldbeateacher,specialeducational needscoordinator,GeneralPractitioner (GP),familysupportworker, and/or healthvisitor.

**Wherethere aremorecomplexneeds, helpmaybe providedundersection17 oftheChildrenAct 1989(childrenin need).Wheretherearechild protectionconcerns localauthorityservicesmustmake enquiries and decide if any action must betaken under section47 of theChildrenAct 1989,seeChapter1of Working Together toSafeguardChildren 2015formoreinformation.

Typesof abuse and neglect

  1. Abuse:afrmfmaltreatmentfachild. Somebodymay abuser neglect achild by inflictingharm,r by failingto act to prevent harm.They may be abused by an adult tsr another child r childr
  1. Physicalabuse: afmf abusewhichmayinvolve hitting,shaking,thrsning, burningr scalding, dring,suffting rtherwisecausing physicalharm toa child. Physicalharmmay also becaused whena parentr carerfabricates the symptmsf, rdeliberately induces, illness inac
  1. Emtilabuse:thepersistent emtionalmaltreatmentfachildsuchasto causesevere and adverse effectsn thechild’s emtional development.Itmay involve cngtoa childthat they are worthlessr unloved, inadequate, rvalued y insofar as theymeet the needs of another pers.Itmay include not givingthe child rtunitiesto expresstheir views, deliberatelysilencingthem rmakingfun’f what theysayrhowtheycmmunicate. It mayfeature ager developmentally inapprriate expectations being impdn children. These may include interactions that are beyond achilds developmentalcapability as wellasrprtection and limitationf exploration and learning,r preventingthechild participating in normalslinteraction.Itmay involveseeing r hearing the ill-treatment fanother.Itmay involve serious bullying (includingcyberbullying),causingchildren frequently tofeelfrightened r in danger,the expltationrcrruption fchildren. Some levelf emtionalabuse is invved inall typesf maltreatmentfachild,although itmaycur
  1. Sexual abuse: involves frcingr enticinga childr yg personto takepartin sexualactivities,not necessarily involvinga high levelofviolence, whether r notthe child is awaref what is happening. The activitiesmay involve physicalctact,including assault by penetration (fr examplerape rralsex)r non-penetrative acts such as masturbation,kissing,rubbing and tgtsidefclothing. Theymay also include non-ctact activities,such as involvingchildren in looking at, rin the prtionf,sexualimages, watching sexualactivities,encouraging children to behave insexually inapprriate ways,rgrming achild in preparationfr abuse (includingvia the internet). Sexualabuse is notsy perpetrated by adult males.Wmen can alsocmmitactsfsexualabuse, ascantherchildr
  1. Neglect: the persistentfailure tomeeta child’s basicphysical and/r psychological needs, likelyto result in theserious impairmentfthechilds healthr development.Neglect maycur during pregnancy asaresult f maternalsubstance abuse.Once a child is born, neglect may involvea parentr carerfailing t: prvide adequatefclothing and shelter(including exclusionfrm homerabandonment); prtectachild frm physical and emotional harmr danger; ensure adequatesupervision (including the usef inadequatecare-givers);r ensure accessto apprriatemedicalcareor treatment.It may also include neglect f,r unresponsivenesst,achild’s basic emtionalneeds.


  1. Expert and prfessionalrganisations are bestplacedto preup-t-dateguidance and practicalsupport nspecificsafeguarding issues. For example infrmationfschools andcges can befd nthe TES websiteand NSPCC website. Schools andcleges can also access brd government guidance n the issues listed below viatheGOV.UKwebsite:

Furtherinformation onaChild Missing fromEducation

Allchildren, regardless oftheircircumstances, are entitledtoafulltime education which issuitableto their age, ability, aptitude and any special educationalneedsthey may have. Localauthorities have a duty to establish,asfaras itis possible to do so,the identity ofchildren ofcompulsory schoolagewho aremissing education in their area.

Achild goingmissing from education is a potentialindicator of abuse or neglect.School andcollegestaff should followtheschool’s or collegesprocedures for dealingwith childrenthat gomissingfrom education, particularly on repeat occasions, to help identify therisk ofabuse and neglect, includingsexual exploitation, andto help preventthe risks oftheir goingmissing infuture.

Schoolsshould put in place appropriatesafeguarding policies, proceduresand responsesfor children who gomissing from education, particularlyonrepeat occasions.It is essentialthat allstaff are alertto signsto look out forand the individualtriggersto be aware of whenconsideringthe risks of potentialsafeguarding concernssuch astravelling toconflict zones, FGMandforcedmarriage.

The lawrequires allschoolsto have an admissionregister and, with the exception ofschools where all pupils are boarders, an attendanceregister.Allpupils must be placed onbothregisters8.

All schoolsmust inform their localauthority9of any pupil who is going to be deletedfrom the admissionregister wherethey:

  • have beentaken tf school bytheir parents and are being educatedtside the schoolsysteme.g. hmeeducation;
  • haveceasedto attendschool and no longer live within reasonable distance f the schoolat whichthey areregistered;
  • have been certified bytheschoolmedicalfficer as unlikelyto be ina fit state fhealthto attend school befre ceasingto bef cmpulsryschoolage, and neither he/she nor his/her parenthas indicatedthe intentiontoctinueto attend theschoolafterceasing to befcmpulsryschoolage;
  • are in custyfr a periodf mrethan frmths due toafinalcrt rder and the prrietr does notreasonably believe they willbe returningtothe schoolatthe endf that period; r,
  • have beenpermanently exclu

The localauthority must be notified when aschool isto deletea pupilfrom itsregister underthe abovecircumstances. Thisshouldbe done assoon as the grounds for deletion aremet,but no laterthan deleting the pupil’s namefromthe register. It is essentialthat schoolscomply withthis duty, so that local authoritiescan, as part of their duty to identify

9  Regulation4ofthe Education(Pupil Registration)(England) Regulations 2006

10Regulation12(3)ofthe Education(PupilRegistration)(England) Regulations 2006

children of compulsory school age who are missing education, follow up with any child whomight be in danger of notreceiving an educationand who might be atrisk of abuse orneglect.

Allschoolsmustinformthelocalauthorityofanypupilwhofailstoattendschoolregularly,orhasbeenabsentwithouttheschool’spermissionforacontinuousperiodof10schooldaysormore, atsuchintervals asareagreedbetweentheschoolandthelocalauthority(orindefaultofsuchagreement,atintervals determinedbytheSecretaryofState)10.

Further information onChildSexualExploitation

Childsexualexploitation(CSE) involvesexploitativesituations, contexts and relationships whereyoung people receive something(for example food, accommodation, drugs, alcohol, gifts,money or in somecases simply affection) as aresult of engagingin sexualactivities. Sexualexploitationcantake manyformsrangingfromthe seemingly consensual’relationship wheresexis exchangedfor affection or gifts,toserious organised crime by gangs and groups. Whatmarks outexploitation is an imbalance ofpower intherelationship. The perpetratoralways holds somekind of power overthe victimwhich increases asthe exploitativerelationship develops. Sexualexploitation involvesvarying degrees ofcoercion, intimidation or enticement,including unwanted pressurefrom peers to have sex,sexual bullying including cyberbullying and grooming. However, it also importanttorecognise that someyoungpeople who are beingsexually exploited do not exhibitany externalsigns ofthis abuse.

Furtherinformation onFemale Genital Mutilation

FemaleGenitalMutilation(FGM)comprises allproceduresinvolving partialortotal removalofthe externalfemale genitalia or other injury tothefemale genital organs. Itis illegalinthe UK and a formofchild abuse with long-lasting harmfulconsequences.

Professionals in all agencies, andindividuals and groups inrelevantcommunities, need tobe alert tothe possibility ofa girlbeing at risk of FGM,or alreadyhavingsuffered FGM.


There isa range of potentialindicatorsthata girlmaybe atrisk ofFGM.Warningsigns that FGMmay be abouttotake place, or may have alreadytaken place, can befound on pages16-17 ofthe Multi-Agency PracticeGuidelines, and Chapter9 ofthoseGuidelines (pp42-44) focuses onthe role of schools andcolleges.

Section5C ofthe FemaleGenitalMutilation Act 2003(as insertedbysection 75 ofthe Serious Crime Act 2015) givestheGovernment powersto issuestatutory guidance on

11  Regulation12(1)ofthe Education(PupilRegistration)(England) Regulations 2006

FGMtorelevant persons. Oncethe government issuesanystatutorymulti-agency guidancethis will applyto schools and colleges.


If staffhaveaconcerntheyshould activate localsafeguarding procedures, usingexisting nationaland localprotocols for multi-agencyliaison withpolice andchildrenssocialcare.Whenmandatoryreporting commences inOctober 2015these procedures willremain when dealing withconcernsregardingthe potentialforFGMto takeplace.Wherea teacher discoversthat an actof FGM appearsto havebeen carried out ona girlwho is aged under18, therewill beastatutory duty upon that individualto report it tothe police.


Section5B ofthe FemaleGenitalMutilation Act 2003(as insertedbysection 74 ofthe SeriousCrimeAct 2015)willplaceastatutorydutyuponteachers11, alongwithsocialworkersandhealthcareprofessionals,toreporttothepolicewheretheydiscover (eitherthrough disclosure by thevictim orvisual evidence)that FGM appearsto have beencarried out on agirl under 18.Those failingto reportsuch cases willface disciplinarysanctions. Itwillbe rareforteachersto seevisual evidence, and theyshould

not be examining pupils, but the same definition of what is meant by“to discover thatan act ofFGM appearsto have been carried outis usedfor all professionalsto whomthis mandatoryreporting duty applies.

TheMandatoryreporting duty will commence in October 2015. Once introduced, teachers must reporttothe police cases wherethey discoverthatan actofFGM appears to have beencarried out. Unless the teacher has a good reason notto,theyshould still considerand discuss any suchcase withthe school’sdesignated safeguarding lead and involvechildren’ssocialcare as appropriate.

Furtherinformation onPreventingRadicalisation

Protectingchildrenfromtheriskofradicalisationshould beseen as part of schoolswider safeguarding duties, and issimilar in natureto protecting children fromotherforms ofharm and abuse. Duringthe process ofradicalisation itis possibleto intervene to prevent vulnerable people being radicalised.

Radicalisationreferstothe process by which a person comesto support terrorism and formsof extremism12. There is no single way of identifying an individualwho islikelyto besusceptible to an extremistideology. Itcan happen inmany different ways and

12  Section5B(11)ofthe FemaleGenitalMutilation Act2003(as insertedbysection74ofthe SeriousCrime Act2015)provides adefinition for the term ‘teacher.

13  Extremism isvocaloractiveoppositionto fundamental British values,includingdemocracy,theruleof law,individual libertyand mutualrespectand toleranceofdifferentfaiths andbeliefs.Wealsoinclude inour definitionof extremismcalls for thedeathofmembersofourarmedforces,whether in thiscountryor overseas.

  1. settings. Specific backgrdfactrsmay ctributetovulnerability which areften cmbined withspecific influences such as family, friends rne, and withspecific needsfr which anextremistrterrristgrup may appearto prvide an answer. The internet and the use fslmedia in particular has becmea majrfactr inthe radicalisatinfyg

As withmanaging othersafeguardingrisks, staffshould be alerttochanges in childrens behaviour whichcould indicatethatthey may be in need of help or protection. School staffshould use theirprofessional judgement in identifyingchildrenwhomight be atrisk ofradicalisation andactproportionately whichmay include makingareferraltothe Channelprogramme.


From1 July 2015 specified authorities, including allschools as defined in thesummary ofthis guidance, are subjecttoa duty under section 26 ofthe Counter-Terrorism and SecurityAct 2015(the CTSA 2015”), inthe exercise oftheirfunctions,to have“due regard13tothe needto prevent peoplefrombeing drawn intoterrorism14. Thisduty is known asthe Prevent duty. It applies toa widerange of public-facing bodies.Bodiesto whichtheduty applies must haveregardtostatutory guidanceissued under section 29 of

theCTSA 2015(“thePrevent guidance”). Paragraphs 57-76 ofthe Prevent guidanceare concerned specificallywithschools (but alsocover childcare).

Thestatutory Preventguidancesummarisestherequirements onschools interms offour generalthemes: riskassessment,working in partnership, stafftraining and IT policies.

  • Schools are expected to assesstheriskf children being drawninto terrrism,includingsupport frextremistideasthat arepartfterrorist ideology.This means being able to demtrate both a general understandingfthe risks affectingchildren andyg people in the area andaspecific understanding wto identify individualchildren whomay be at riskfradicalisatin and whatto do tosupportthem.Schools should haveclear prres in placefr protectingchildren atriskf radicalisation. These pruresmay be sett in existingsafeguardingpcies.It is not necessaryfrschoolsto have distinct policiesn implementing the Prevent duty.
  • The Prevent duty buildsn existing localpartnership arrangements. For example, governingbs and prrietrsf allschoolsshould ensurethat theirsafeguarding arrangements take intoacct thepolicies and prres ofLocalSafeguarding ChildrenBrds(LSCBs).
  • ThePrevent guidancereferstothe importancefPrevent awarenesstrainingto equipstaffto identifychildren atriskfbeing drawn intoterrrism and to

14  According to the Prevent dutyguidancehavingdueregard’ meansthat theauthoritiesshouldplacean appropriateamountofweighton theneed topreventpeoplebeingdrawn into terrorism whentheyconsider all theother factors relevanttohow theycarryouttheirusual functions.

15  “Terrorism for thesepurposes has thesamemeaningas for theTerrorism Act2000 (section1(1) to (4) ofthatAct).

challengeextremistideas. Individualschools are best placed to assess the training needs ofstaffinthe light oftheir assessment oftherisktopupils atthe schoolof being drawnintoterrorism. Asa minimum, however, schoolsshould ensurethatthe designated safeguarding lead undertakes Prevent awareness training and is able to provide advice andsupport to other members ofstaff on protectingchildrenfromtheriskofradicalisation.

  • Schoolsmust ensurethatchildrenaresafe frmterrrist and extremist material when accessing the internet inschools.Schsshouldensurethat suitable filtering isin place.Itis also importantthat schoolsteach pupils abt safetymegenerally.

The Departmentfor Educationhas also published advicefor schools onthe Prevent duty.The advice is intended to complementthePrevent guidance and signposts other sources ofadvice andsupport.


Schoolstaff should understand when it is appropriatetomake areferraltotheChannel programme.15Channelisa programme whichfocuses on providing support atan early stageto people who are identified as beingvulnerable to being drawn into terrorism.Itprovidesa mechanismforschools to makereferrals ifthey are concerned that an individualmight bevulnerable toradicalisation. An individual’s engagement withthe programme is entirely voluntary at allstages.

Section 36 ofthe CTSA 2015 placesa dutyon localauthorities to ensure Channel panels are in place. The panelmustbechaired bythe localauthority andincludethe policefor therelevant local authority area.Following a referralthe panelwill assess the extentto whichidentified individuals are vulnerableto being drawn intoterrorism,and, where considered appropriate and necessary consent is obtained, arrange forsupportto be providedto those individuals. Section 38 of the CTSA2015requires partnersof Channel panelstoco-operate withthe panel inthe carrying outof itsfunctions and withthe police in providing information about a referred individual. Schools and colleges which are requiredto haveregardto Keeping Children Safe in Education are listed inthe CTSA2015 as partnersrequired tocooperate with local Channelpanels16.

16  Guidanceissuedundersection36(7)andsection38(6)oftheCTSA2015 inrespectofChannel is availableat: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/channel-guidance

17  Suchpartners arerequired tohaveregard toguidance issuedunder section38(6)ofthe CTSA2015 whenco-operatingwith thepanelandpoliceundersection38oftheCTSA2015


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